Chromosome Analysis is a technique where the chromosomes from cells are visualized under a microscope during metaphase, the stage during cell division when chromosomes are condensed, to analyze the total number and structure of the chromosomes. Staining with Giemsa dye results in a specific banding pattern of light and dark stripes, known as G-banding, and allows identification of each chromosome.
DNA Sequencing deciphers the precise order of the adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine nucleotides within a DNA sample. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms are highly automated and deliver large scale DNA sequence data with high speed and accuracy.
FISH is a cytogenetic technique that uses a fluorescently labeled probe to detect the location or absence of a target DNA sequence directly on a fixed slide preparation of chromosomes.
Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, sorting, and analyzing thousands of microscopic particles per second by passing a suspension past an electronic detection apparatus. Flow cytometry can be used for cell counting, cell sorting, and biomarker detection, as well as measuring total DNA, newly synthesized DNA, and gene expression. This technique allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of physical and/or chemical characteristics.
Immunohistochemistry is the detection of expression levels and distribution of antigens (e.g. proteins) in a cell or tissue section (usually frozen or paraffin embedded tissues) using antibodies bound to the target that can be visualized through staining.
ISH is a hybridization technique using a labeled complementary DNA or RNA strand as a probe to bind to a specific DNA or RNA sequence target to localize the target within a chromosome or tissue.
Nucleic acid microarray analysis combines robotics, chemistry, computer science, and biology to study thousands of genes simultaneously. Thousands of spotted samples, DNA, cDNA, or oligonucleotides, are known as probes (with known identity). Probes are immobilized on a solid support, such as a microscope glass slides, silicon chips, or nylon membranes. Nucleic acid microarrays allow analysis of gene expression and discovery, and mutation analysis of many thousands of genes in a single reaction quickly and efficiently.
PCR is a molecular biology technique where a DNA template sequence is exponentially amplified from a single copy by a thermal cycling process. Through repeated cycles of heating and cooling, the target DNA is replicated using a thermo stable DNA polymerase and DNA primers complementary to the target region.